Insolation is the radiation generated from solar and reaches the earth’s surface. This phenomenon is usually measured by the amount of solar received per square centimeter per minute. Solar insolation plays a very important part in the climatology of the earth. One of the areas that it greatly influences includes the environment; hence, it affects living things. For that reason, insolation becomes a very vital area for sustaining life. It also renews sources of energy that help in preventing the exploitation of non-renewable ones such as oil. Besides, insolation creates different micro-climates, thereby leading to vegetation canopies that absorb the short wave radiations. This scenario is important as it helps in increasing ground sensitivity temperature. Available literature also shows that insolation produces temporal elements of incoming surfaces that are good in determining different landscapes and scaling processes.
Solar insolation also affects the four seasons of the earth. For example, it causes hot spells in the summer season since the sun is directly above. However, when the sun moves to an angle, there will be a reduction in heat intensity, causing chilly or cold weather. This situation results in the spring, autumn, or winter season, depending on the sun’s position. In terms of air circulation, insolation is affected by the atmosphere’s density. Newton’s law of motion explains that the winds move from high to low-pressure zones. At the same time, the air is usually measured based on the atmospheric pressure that also controls the speed of the wind. As the air is in motion, other factors, such as the centripetal, rotational, and frictional forces, also occur.
Various research indicates that these motions are always driven by the uneven distribution of the net incoming radiation. This irregular dispersal is termed latitudinal reliance. The earth’s atmosphere responds to this type of imbalance as it moves the heat from the tropical areas to the sub-tropical areas. At this time, the insolation surpasses the infrared terrestrial radiation that goes out to space up the middle and high latitudes, leading to a net radiative loss of heat. The accomplishment of this objective involves both horizontal and vertical heat transfer processes. This state of events brings about air circulation that moves from the earth’s equator to the North or the South Pole.
The atmosphere is a vital part of the earth that serves a protective function. It forms a layer of gasses that look like a blanket. These layers absorb the heat from the sun during insolation, thereby maintaining the state of health inside the atmosphere. This phenomenon is why the earth remains warm due to the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. In addition, the atmosphere plays a significant role during the insolation process as it helps keep the overall temperature of the earth during the day or night. This situation prevents the earth from becoming too cold at night or too hot during the day. The atmosphere is also assisted by a portion known as the ozone layer that helps protect the earth and living things from the effects of insolation. Various researchers have revealed that insolation influences the biotic and abiotic lives in the ecosystem. This situation controls the number of species of organisms in a certain ecosystem. Besides, it brings about various changes in biodiversity. This phenomenon significantly affects the traits of the different species existing in a particular ecosystem.