Surveillance may refer to the secret observation of places, movements, activities, and people by individuals and technological devices. The police employ the process to investigate allegations of criminal behavior in society. This study outlines different types of monitoring techniques. These procedures may be in the form of electronic monitoring, physical observations, undercover operations, or fixed surveillance.
The first monitoring constitutes the electronic kind. This form of surveillance uses contemporary techniques like fax, wiretapping, the internet, and telephony. The surveillance is efficient in monitoring and detecting criminal activities. However, the disadvantage of this monitoring is that it requires a court order to undertake. Investigations can only commence after a court of law’s approval.
The second surveillance entails the fixed process. This method involves police officers observing persons and places from a set distance. One or two officers can be assigned to observe one place or person. Criminology experts consider the two-person approach as the most effective one of the two. The method allows for the change of positions by the officers. This aspect reduces the probability of a suspect spotting the officers. The design effectively gets firsthand information about a place or a subject from a criminal expert. However, the one officer approach may fail because he may divert his attention from the object of observation.
The third surveillance entails the stationary technical design. This process involves an officer installing hidden equipment and cameras to record observations of a place or a person. Investigators can gather records, photos, and video images from a hidden camera. This technique reduces the need for officers monitoring a situation “round the clock”. The risk of discovery is also minimal. However, the approach may fail in case of technical failure of the equipment. The stationary aspects of the devices limit their performance in flexible contexts.