This paper looks into various aspects of cervical cancer. It looks into how cervical cancer is diagnosed and the symptoms that are used to tell when an individual has cervical cancer. It also seeks to establish the available treatment for the disease, prevention, and the use of P medication.
Cervical cancer begins at the cervix. The cervix is a section of the womb, at the lower end, which unwraps at the apex of the vagina. It crops up when anomalous cells on the cervix grow past control. Like many other cancer types, cervical cancer is treatable if identified early. This is only possible through a pap test. This cancer is widespread among women worldwide. However, it is less frequent in the America due to Pap smear sensitization, which motivates people to go for routine pap tests. In most cases, cervical cancer cases emanate from squamous cell. The cancer develops gradually, starting as a precancerous condition commonly referred to as dysplasia. Pap smear can successfully detect this condition, making it fully treatable. The precancerous condition turns into cervical cancer after several years.
The Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus got through sexual association. Different types of HPV have different causes (Stern & Stanley, 1994). A person’s sexual inclinations and patterns may have an influence on their risks of getting cervical cancer. Unfavourable sexual lifestyles include premature sexual encounters, numerous sexual cohorts as well as having associates who take on soaring sexual actions. However, cervical cancer risk factors include:
- Poor economic status
- Weakened immune system
- Failure to get the HPV vaccine
Diagnosis of cervical cancer
It is advisable to have a habitual Pap test included in the regular pelvic examination. To diagnose cervical cancer, doctors scrap minute samples of cervical units from their cervical face, which the doctor uses to investigate any cell change. If the test shows unusual changes in the cell, the doctor may propose other tests to inspect the presence of a precancerous cell on the cervix. In other cases, doctors request pap tests if an individual displays cervical cancer symptoms such as bleeding after intercourse. Pap smears are usually effective for testing precancerous cells but are not the final diagnosis for cancer. If doctors find abnormal changes in the cervical cells, they go further to examine the cervix under magnification, a process referred to as colposcopy (Russell, 2007). During this process, the doctor surgically gets rid of (biopsy) tissues from the cervix and sends to the laboratory for assessment.
Cervical cancer symptoms
In most cases, early cancer cases have no symptoms. However, the symptoms include:
- Anomalous vaginal flow that may occur after menopause, after sexual contact, or amid periods.
- Incessant vaginal release, which may be watery, pale, brown, foul smelling or bloody
- Monthly periods that may be longer and heavier than usual.
Cervical cancer may extend to the patient’s liver, intestines, bladder and lungs. Patients may not experience any problem until it advances and spreads to other organs. Patients with advanced cases of cervical cancer may experience backside pain, pelvic sting, weariness, loss of desire for food, weight loss, bone ruptures or ache, urine seepage from the vagina and lone bloated leg.
Cervical cancer treatment depends on several factors such as the patient’s age, the cancer’s stage, shape and size of the tumour and the patients desire to bear children in the future. Early detection is curable by removal or destruction of the precancerous tissue. Doctors may do this in several ways, preventing damage to the cervix or elimination of the uterus.
Surgeries useful in early detection comprise:
- Cryotherapy, which cools the anomalous cervical cells
- Loop electrosurgical erasure process (LEEP), which employs electrical energy to eliminate the abnormal tissues
- Laser therapy, which uses light to smoulder the abnormal cells
- Patients, who have gone through repetitive LEEP process, may undergo a hysterectomy, which is the purging of the uterus.
In cases where the cancer is advanced, treatment may include:
- Pelvic exenteration– This is an extreme surgery, which removes all the pelvic organs. These organs include the rectum and bladder.
- Radical hysterectomy– This involves the amputation of the uterus together with its adjacent tissues, the superior vaginal component, together with lymph nodes.
If the disease has extended outside the pelvis or has returned, doctors use radiation therapy, which may be internal or external. Internal radiation uses a device containing radioactive material. The doctor places this device inside the patient’s vagina adjacent to the cancer. The patient eliminates the gadget when she returns home. In contrast, external radiation uses radiation beams emanating from a large machine. The machine is placed over the body part containing the cancer.
There are several complications related to the treatment of cervical cancer. While some cancer types fail to respond to treatment, other recurs, triggering advanced treatment (Hirschmann, 2010).
There is a vaccine that prevents cervical cancer. Gardasil averts infections against the HPV types responsible for a majority of cervical cancer cases. Gardasil vaccine prevents precancerous lesions and cervical cancer at the early stages. Another precaution measure is practicing safe sex, which not only prevents HPV but other sexually transmitted illnesses. Women should trim down sexual partners and stop involvement with those who are involved in high risk sexual acts. Finally, obtaining regular Pap tests assists identify cervical cell modifications, hence, easing their treatment prior to turning into cancer.
Adipex-P (Phentermine) is a suppressant that is comparable to an amphetamine. Adi [ex-P suppresses appetite and has a direct impact on the central nervous system. Doctors recommend Adipex-P together with work out and cut back in the cure of obesity, especially in patients with risk factors like diabetes, lofty cholesterol and elevated blood pressure. Using Adipex-P after or together with Mao inhibitors such as selegiline, furazolidone and phenelzine is not recommendable as this may cause critical drug interaction, leading to serious side effects. In addition to this, using Adipex-P jointly with diet medications like dexfenfluramine may trigger pulmonary hypertension.
Hirschmann K. (2010). Cervical cancer. Detroit MI: Lucent Books/Gale, Cengage Learning.
Stern, P.L. & Stanley M.A. (1994). Human papillpmaviruses and cervical cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Russell T.L. (2007). Weight loss in obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes treated with the long term appetite suppressant Axokine. New York: Cengage Learning