Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to the presence of a high level of glucose in the blood (Alssema et al 742). Research has shown that this is the most common type of diabetes that affects both children and adults. Individuals who suffer from type 1 diabetes are more susceptible to suffer from type 2 diabetes (Alssema et al 742). T2DM occurs when the body is unable to produce adequate insulin or the cells develop resistance against insulin (American Diabetes Association 62). For instance, the pancreas may produce excess insulin to the extent that the body is unable to utilize it (Alssema et al. 743).
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If the body cells are unable to absorb glucose, it accumulates in the blood causing dehydration. In most cases, excess glucose in the blood is excreted in the kidney to restore the homeostatic balance in the body (American Diabetes Association 62). It is against this backdrop that this paper gives an overview of the causal factors, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of type 2 Diabetes.
Causal factors for Type 2 diabetes
85-90% of people with diabetes suffer from type 2 Diabetes (Alssema et al 742). This disease commonly affects aged people and has been confirmed to be a life-threatening illness. Empirical evidence has shown that the disease occurs due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There are predisposing factors that increase the susceptibility of type 2 diabetes among individuals. Research has shown that genetic factors play a significant role in increasing the prevalence of T2DM (Alssema et al 742). For instance, it has been proven that if one twin suffers from T2DM, there are greater chances of the other twin suffering from the same.
In this case, the probability is approximately 95% for identical twins and 25-50% for fraternal twins. It is apparent that several genes approximately about 36 contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association 63). However, their effects account for 10% of the total heritable components of T2DM (American Diabetes Association 63). Notably, abnormality in a single gene can rarely cause type diabetes but can cause other specific forms of diabetes.
On the other hand, environmental factors influence the lifestyles of people where certain practices can cause the development of the disease. Environmental status plays a significant role in determining the health of an individual. For instance, lack of physical exercise, stress, and poor diet are the notable causes of type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association 64). It is apparent that 30% of reported cases of T2DM result from obesity. Notably, consumption of excess fats increases the probability of suffering from the ailment by 30% (Lazarou, Panagiotakos, and Matalas 382). Diet-related issues such as consumption of excess sugars pose one at risk of contracting the disease.
Lack of enough physical exercise triggers the accumulation of excess fats in the body tissues. It is imperative to note that vigorous exercises help the body break down excess glucose for energy. Besides this, medical conditions have been said to accelerate and predispose people to T2DM. Examples of medications that are perceived to cause the ailment include statins, thiazides, and glucocorticoids (Lazarou, Panagiotakos, and Matalas 382). In addition, 50% of people with gestational diabetes have a high chance of developing T2DM.
Signs and symptoms
It is imperative to note that there are distinct symptoms that can be used to identify individuals suffering from the disease. Classical signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes include frequent urination, weight loss, frequent feeling of hunger and thirst (Kachowsk, Over and Qiu 633). On diagnosis, there are minute symptoms such as blurred vision, fatigue, and itchiness. Notably, the condition of excess concentration of glucose or insulin in the blood results in to decrease in consciousness level and low blood pressure (Alssema et al 745).
Pointless to say, some complications are associated with type 2 diabetes. Such complications include cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, and stroke (Alssema et al 746). It is imperative to note that severe infection of the disease can lead to amputation of lower limbs, blindness, and kidney failure. To some extent, victims suffer from cognitive and sexual dysfunctions. Several ways can be used to diagnose T2DM. For instance, research findings have shown that health experts use glucose thresholds to test the rate of reliance on glucose in the body (American Diabetes Association 67). The criterion of identifying the level of glucose in the blood is commonly used to diagnose the disease.
Some interventions can be made to manage the prevalence of T2DM. For instance, lifestyle interventions such as increasing physical exercise and eating a healthy diet can help to lower the risks (American Diabetes Association 68). It is essential to manage risks that are associated with cardiovascular complications such as hypertension and high cholesterol levels. This can be done by improving and adopting healthy lifestyles. Health experts suggest that the use of insulin multi-dose and ant-diabetic medications can help to lower insulin resistance in the body (Kachowski, Over and Qiu 633). Individuals are recommended to limit the intake of sugary drinks and fatty foods (Lazarou, Panagiotakos, and Matalas 382). Moreover, victims of impaired insulin tolerance should exercise regularly to stimulate the breakdown of excess glucose.
To recap it all, T2DM is a chronic disease that occurs due to an abnormal increase of glucose in the blood to an extent that the condition results in insulin resistance impairment in the body cells. This condition is caused by a combination of factors such as medical, environmental, and genetics However; once the disease is diagnosed, it can be managed and controlled using various lifestyle intervention measures.
Alssema Marjan, Rachael Newson, Stephan Bakker and Coen, Stehouwer. “One Risk Assessment Tool for Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease.” Diabetes Care 35.4 (2012): 741-748. Print.
American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Care. 33.1 (2010): 62–69. Print.
Kachowski Larisa, Darrel Over and Kefeng Qiu. “Medications for Weight Loss in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” American Family Physician 85.6 (2012): 633-635. Print.
Lazarou Chrystalleni, Demosthenes Panagiotakos and Antonia-Leda, Matalas. “The Role of Diet in Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Implications for Public Health.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52.5 (2012): 382- 387. Print.