History: The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745

The Forty-five Rebellion, also known as the Jacobite Rising of 1745, was an endeavor by Charles Edward Stuart to destroy the Hanoverian dynasty and reinstall the Stuarts as the royal house of Great Britain. James VII, Charles Edward Stuart’s father, was the last Roman Catholic monarch to rule England, Scotland, and Ireland. James was forced into exile in France after being ousted by his Protestant son-in-law.

The uprising started on August 19, 1745, in the Scottish Highlands, with Charles capturing Edinburgh. However, the conflict began in 1685, when James II ascended the throne, but the English Parliament refused to allow a Catholic reign in Protestant England, exiling him to France three years later1. The first Jacobites uprising began in 1715 when the Earl of Mar led an insurgency to destroy the throne; however, losing at the Battle of Preston after two successful battles.

After 30 years, Charles II plotted the revolt to rule Great Britain. 20,000 townspeople received the Jacobite army in Edinburgh on September 15. The final fight took place on Culloden Moor, on April 16, 1746, after several battles in Prestonpans and Falkirk, not without the help of France. A 5,000 Jacobite army fought 9,000-government forces. The Highlanders were met with a cannon and musket fire barrage attack, and many were slaughtered within half an hour. A total of 2,000 people died, with another 1,000 being taken, prisoner. This battle marked Charles Edward’s escape to France and the end of Stuart’s claim to the throne. Other notable rebel leaders were executed, more than 3,000 Jacobites were imprisoned.

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