Teen Pregnancy in the Point of View of Social Ecology

Intrapersonal Level. This refers to the individual attributes, sexual orientation, age, values, and aspirations of a person. It may also include religious identity and health literacy. For example, a teenager who is ignorant of the consequences of sexual intercourse is likely to be a victim of teenage pregnancy.

Interpersonal Level. Interpersonal factors refer to a set of formal and informal social support systems, including workgroups, family, and friends. Open communication with parents can deter adolescents from engaging in illicit sexual activities. However, if a gap exists between the teens and their parents, they feel isolated and are likely to be influenced by other factors such as peer pressure and mass media to engage in unprotected sex.

Community Level. Teenagers, who grow up in a community with an organized and sparse settlement, where they interact with socially upright neighbors, are likely to avoid actions that might increase their risk of experiencing teenage pregnancies.

Organizational Level. Organizations have a significant role to play in teenage pregnancy. If teens are exposed to strict organizational frameworks, they tend to adhere to the structures and shape their sexual behaviors. One example is the exposure that students get in schools, which shapes the way they think about sexuality. On the societal approach, the quality of the neighborhood influences the behavior of teens. Teens are likely to adopt the behaviors they observe; other factors such as drug use, deviant behaviors, crime, and rebellion are more likely to be prevalent in slums and regions with many people. The behaviors heighten the risk of teen pregnancy.

Public Policy. State and federal legislation on reproductive health plays a significant role in teenage pregnancy. After the national legalization of abortion in 1973, coupled with the legislation allowing teens to access reproductive health services independently without involving their parents, the rate of teen pregnancy has been on the rise. Consequently, this has led to an increase in the rate of abortion among teenagers.

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