Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes are vital in the energy production processes in the body. They serve as organic catalysts, especially in promoting metabolism. A protein is a nutritional substance that is found in all living organisms. It is directly involved in the chemical processes of life. Its functions are different depending on the particular species and organ. For example, a muscle protein differs from the brain and liver protein. This piece of knowledge unveils that the protein function of any species depends on the interaction it has with other molecules. Proteins usually play a pivotal role in promoting the actions of enzymes that act as catalysts. This action further helps in increasing the protein function in the organism because the enzymes intensify the rate at which the protein converts into a product.
Proteins contain enzymes that are usually classified into different classes depending on the reaction they catalyze.

For instance, the Urease enzyme promotes the hydrolysis of urea. DNA polymerase helps in the synthesis of DNA. Other enzyme classes include trypsin and pepsin. For this reason, enzymes have been categorized into six classes, each containing sub-classes with regard to the type of reaction they catalyze. The first class includes the oxidoreductases enzyme that transfers electrons, such as the H atoms and hydride. Others include the transferases that produce group transfer reactions, hydrolases that produce a hydrolysis reaction to transfer functional groups to water, lysates that provide an additional group to the double bonds, or the formation of the double bond by removing groups.There is also the ligase enzyme that promotes the formation of the C-C-S, C-O, and C-N bonds through condensation reactions together with the ATP cleavage. Lastly, there is the isomerase enzyme that is important for the transfer of groups found within molecules to yield the isometric forms.

Enzymes also work alongside coenzymes, allosteric regulators, and cofactors that are important in providing a particular environment that is more favorable for a particular reaction. This state of affairs means that the coenzymes are very vital in any chemical reaction. They work by lowering the energy barrier during a biological reaction. Due to this situation, there is a metabolic reaction that occurs at a much faster rate and higher physiological temperature. Coenzymes are also important in transporting chemical groups between enzymes. In contrast, the provisions form the framework for the structural conformation of the enzyme to which they are attached. Due to this reason, substrates bind more easily to increase the likelihood of a more favorable reaction.

During the enzyme reaction, there are metabolic pathways that form a series of reactions that regulate the concentration of various substances in the cell through an enzyme-mediated circular and linear sequence. Bioenergetics reveals that these metabolic pathways are important as they maintain the organisms’ homeostasis and other metabolites depending on the availability of the organism’s substrate and body cells. These pathways form different networks that are interconnected to allow the synthesis and breakdown of molecules. This reaction is referred to as catabolism or anabolism.

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