Obesity is one of the most common preventable diseases in the world. According to the WHO (2020), nearly 650 million adults and 340 million children were obese in 2016, while 39% of the population were overweight. The primary causes of obesity and overweight are excessive intake of fat or sugar and limited physical activity. The U.S. ranks 12th in the list of adult prevalence rates of obesity, with 36.20% of the country’s population considered obese (CIA, 2020). The U.K. is 36th (27.80%), while India, ranked 189th (3.90%), has significantly lower rates of obesity (CIA, 2020). In developed countries, such as the U.S. and the U.K., obesity is known to cause a wide range of health complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. However, in India, a developing country, obesity is viewed as a sign of wealth despite its devastating impact on physical fitness, blood sugar levels, and heart health.
The promotion of a balanced diet and adequate nutrition is vital for global and public health. In the developed world, obesity health promotion and prevention strategies should target the problem of overeating and poor dietary choices. Nurses might introduce healthy nutrition plans to their patients and describe their benefits for physical and mental well-being and effective management of health conditions. As healthcare advocates, public health nurses may influence policymaking by using needs and priorities assessments to promote proper dietary requirements in school canteens and medical facilities. Additionally, involving community members in the decision-making process and the development of appropriate policies regarding non-judgmental obesity prevention might improve trust and adherence to a balanced diet.
In India, education on obesity is the key measure for solving the problem. In urban areas, obesity is caused by the same economic or environmental factors as in the U.S., including inactivity, fat- and sugar-rich diet, so the strategy should be oriented at the promotion of good nutrition. According to Undavalli et al. (2018), information, education, and behavior change communication might help to encourage the adoption of healthy food choices and adequate physical activity in Indian communities. The main anticipated challenge is the lack of compliance due to the public perception of obesity as a social indicator of prosperity and wealth. Therefore, the educational approach should present the benefits of a healthy weight and physical fitness for well-being, improved confidence, and decreased healthcare and medication expenses.