Genitourinary Disorders: Signs and Symptoms

Short Subject Description

Genitourinary disorders affect the reproductive system, urinary tract, and kidneys. Most sex organs in females and males are affected by these disorders. Although they can occur at any age, they are most common after middle age. The genitourinary system comprises the organs involved in producing and excreting urine and the genitalia. Although it commonly refers to internal organs, it can also refer to external genitalia, such as the glans penis or vulva (Cho et al., 2017). Disorders of these systems are often due to infection or injury but can also be congenital or genetic disorders. This paper will provide all the information about genitourinary disorders, their signs and symptoms, the health history of the patient, and the socioeconomic and spiritual preparations of a patient undergoing prostatectomy.

Patient’s Health History

Health history includes the patient’s symptoms and family history, medications, allergies and immunizations. The patient’s medical history, previous surgeries, allergies, current medications and surgical plans, family history, psychological status, living conditions and diet are all considered when determining the patient’s health history of genitourinary disorders. Any prior surgery or disease that has affected the urinary tract or genitals should be included in your health history (Jones et al., 2019). The medical history should also include any surgeries performed on the same body area, such as breast implants and a mastectomy for cancer, any bleeding disorders and if there had been diabetes or cancer. Moreover, medication history should also include any regularly taken medications, any known allergies to medications and foods (such as penicillin), your occupation and whether or not you smoke.

Genitourinary symptoms are related to the genitourinary system, either males or females. These indications can vary from mild to severe and signify a more serious problem. Some common signs and symptoms of genitourinary include; genital sores, rashes or swelling, and urine discharge. More advanced signs include urinary tract infections, prostate enlargement, vaginal infection and discharge, male impotence, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer. Genitourinary problems are pretty standard, and they can have many different symptoms. For example, urinary tract infections cause painful urination and frequent urge to urinate, often accompanied by abdominal or back pain. Bladder cancer causes blood in urine and frequent urges to urinate. Prostate cancer causes difficulty urinating, pain while urinating, and frequent urge to urinate.

Diagnostic Investigation Done on the Patient

Genitourinary disorders can be challenging to diagnose. Blood tests and urine tests are often used to confirm a patient’s condition, but the doctor may also need to order X-rays or other imaging tests. By conducting these tests, the doctor will be able to see if all of the symptoms indicated by the results match. The results should indicate if there is a particular condition causing all of your symptoms and how best to treat it (Palacios et al., 2020). If a person is experiencing symptoms of a genitourinary disorder, the doctor will start with a physical exam to check for signs of a condition. Depending on your symptoms, the doctor may suggest several other tests, including blood work. Getting all these tests can feel overwhelming but keeping an open line of communication with the doctor about what each test is for and why it is needed can be very helpful.

Diagnostic of genitourinary disorders is done in a minimum of time using various techniques and tests. A physician with expertise in detecting, interpreting, and treating diseases affecting the genitourinary system will be able to assess your symptoms and begin developing a treatment plan accordingly. The diagnostic study of genitourinary disorders makes up 11% of medical practice. This practice is not surprising as the primary sources of information about male and female genitalia abnormalities are patients who report to doctors. The majority are adults with a clear understanding that their symptoms are abnormal. However, much younger children may also present with problems concerning their genitals. The causes of genitourinary disorders may be both medical, such as infections and abscesses, and non-medical, such as bacteria growing in poorly cleaned dentures or a pressure ulcer that causes a kidney infection. The types of treatments for genitourinary disorders depend on their cause.

Physical Examination of the Patient

Physical examination consists of inspection, palpation and auscultation. Inspection is the visual observation of all body systems, looking closely at areas of concern, such as skin lesions that could be raised and red or inflamed. Palpation is using your hands to detect abnormalities in the patient’s body, checking for lumps or tenderness (Jones et al., 2019). Auscultation is placing your stethoscope on different body parts to check for abnormal heart sounds or lung sounds. All of these steps help diagnose patients with genitourinary disorders. You can perform several various tests during a physical exam that will help determine if a patient has anything wrong with their genital area or urinary tract. A physical examination can be performed on a patient to determine if they have any abnormalities in the genitourinary or GU system.

Bodily check of the genitalia should occur in the patient with gynecologic complaints. This test can be done either by yourself or with the help of another person. The physical examination allows one to check the general state of health, vital signs and breathing patterns, skin colour and temperature and palpation throughout the body (Soisson et al., 2018). The examiner must assess the extent of the disease through examination manoeuvres such as compression, traction, auscultation, percussion and aeration to achieve diagnostic information. Performing physical examination on the genitourinary patient first uses the clinical method to assess the genitourinary system (Cho et al., 2017). Secondly, pay attention to the abdominal palpation and percussion tenderness behind the scrotum, pain around but not in the groin area are pathognomonic for an obstruction of the urinary tract. Guided by the patient’s symptoms and a review of their medical history, the physician will observe and perform the check to test for abnormalities that may be present. The assessments and findings should be documented in the medical record.

Socioeconomic Preparation of a Prostatectomy Patient

A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the prostate gland is removed. A healthcare worker can aid patients in preparing for it by explaining the medical conditions requiring a prostatectomy and explaining why removing any portion of the gland will benefit their health. The healthcare worker should also explain how much time the patient should allow for recovery following the surgery, including what will restrict daily activities after the procedure and how long that recovery period may remain. To ensure the best results, patients should be well-rested, physically fit, and in good health. They should also have their necessary prescriptions and a post-operative plan in place. The surgery takes approximately 15 minutes, but recovery time is much longer. Depending on the circumstances, you can expect to stay at the hospital for three to seven days.

While many men do not feel the need to participate in the preparation process before surgery, health professionals have found that most men like to obtain detailed information about the surgical procedure and what they can expect during recovery. While some patients may not be able to attend a physician’s appointment or health education class, other options can help. A patient can ask friends or family members who have undergone prostatectomy to share their experiences with him. He can also read books or articles explaining what he might experience during this procedure. It is also good to anticipate the treatment’s economic burden and emotional toll. Help the patient complete advance directives and estate planning, including applications for long-term care. Provide financial counselling, including options to help with medical costs or loss of income, insurance reimbursement, and potential Medicare coverage

Spiritual Preparation of a Prostatectomy Patient

Spiritual preparation for patients undergoing prostatectomy is an integral part of the overall treatment plan and involves understanding and identifying patient expectations, feelings and concerns about their care. In addition to including spiritual care as a component of their treatment plan, the physician should also encourage patients to identify and address spiritual issues that arise during their hospital stay (Finley et al., 2018). Patients should be reassured that care providers are available 24 hours a day to address those concerns related to spirituality. Spiritual preparation for prostatectomy develops trust in God and prepares the patient for the unknown. With this type of operation, it is pervasive for the patient to experience changes in their sexual function, such as parts of their body not working as they should be or being unable to achieve erections. The preparation can also relieve and help the patient through these unexpected changes during their recovery.


Cho, S. T., & Na, H. R. (2017). Genitourinary problems in the elderly in geriatric hospitals. Journal of the Korean Medical Association, 60(7), 536-541.

Finley, H. J., Gasta, M. G., Dolan, K. E., Pizano, J. M., Gossard, C. M., Williamson, C. B.,… & Lipski, E. A. (2018). Probiotics and Disease: A Comprehensive Summary—Part 8, Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Disorders. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, 17(1), 38.

Jones, J. A., Pietrzyk, R. A., Cristea, O., & Whitson, P. A. (2019). Renal and genitourinary concerns. Principles of clinical medicine for space flight, 545-579.

Palacios, S., Combalia, J., Emsellem, C., Gaslain, Y., & Khorsandi, D. (2020). Therapies for the management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Post Reproductive Health, 26(1), 32-42.

Soisson, S., Ganz, P. A., Gaffney, D., Rowe, K., Snyder, J., Wan, Y., & Hashibe, M. (2018). Long-term, adverse genitourinary outcomes among endometrial cancer survivors in a large, population-based cohort study. Gynecologic oncology, 148(3), 499-506.

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