Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis: Etiology and Symptoms

Cholelithiasis or gallstones is complex depositions that could form gallbladder. Mainly cholelithiasis occurs due to excessive amounts of cholesterol in the bile stored in the gallbladder. Characteristics that are usually accomplished by a high level of cholesterol in the bile, such as obesity or a high level of bilirubin, cause stone-like substances. Patients with cholelithiasis mostly have no apparent symptoms. However, rarely symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting could occur. Bang and Sherman (2018) mentioned that cholelithiasis could transform into cholecystitis or inflammation of the gallbladder. Talking about cholecystitis is defined as an inflammation of the gallbladder; it happens when gallstones are trapped at the gallbladder’s opening. This condition is also called pseudolith or “fake stones.”

Bang and Sherman (2018) state that cholecystitis is almost always associated with cholelithiasis; however, it sometimes could not appear simultaneously. Cholecystitis is mostly recognized as an acute and chronic consequence of cholelithiasis. Gallstones could block the flow of digestive fluids into the small intestine which causes inflammation of the pancreas or pancreatitis. In addition, a prolonged barrier of the ducts seriously damages digestive organs such as the gallbladder, liver, or pancreas and could end fatally. This happens because gallstones block pancreatitis enzymes responsible for digestion and proper operation of the liver resulting in pancreatitis. Theoretically, it is possible to live without a pancreas; however, its function in an organism should be replaced by medications. The pancreas produces insulin and other hormones that control blood sugar levels. Insulin is one of the important hormones in the human body responsible for energy storage, secretions, and other functions.

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