Islam recognizes the concept of Islam and the state in a likely manner of the modern concept. In Islam din means the religion and daula means the state. The modern concept of state though does not originate the modern concept; it is deeply rooted in the concept of state of Islam. In khilaphat the khalips were the ruler and they practiced a high quality of morality that indicates the substantial use of democracy. The rulers of that time (the khilaphat era), with the concept of kuran, sunnah( the teachings of the prophet) tried to establish a quality life style which is still followed by the Muslim ummah.
Regarding the shia concept, sunni concept and the suffi concept the idea of state and religion is on the whole a same thought. The new totalitarianism is expressed in the concept of din wad daula (unit of religion and state) is an idea that challenges the validity of the secular democratic nation-state in the world of Islam and in its place offers the alternative of Hakinyooiat Allah (goods room). “It also goes beyond this concern with the Islamic world by claiming that it will found an Islamic form of global politics that embraces the whole of humanity”.
High khilaphat era
After the death of prophet Hazrat Mohammad (sm) a question arose who would be the next successor. Abu-bokor, the wisest man of the prophet’s follower became the first khalip. It is considered the first khaliphat. In this way the Omor, Osman and Ali the other khalips came. Among the khalipats, the reign of Osman was the most important one. In this time the study of hadit was started and the quran was given a complete shape. For this reasons this eram, the third one, can be called the High khilaphat era.
Approaches of sunnies during high khilaphat era
There are two schools of Mohammedan law viz. the Sunni and the Shia. This division did not spring originally out of the difference of legal or religious doctrine; rather, it was caused by a dispute which, in its origin, was wholly political. The Sunni base their doctrine on the entirety of the traditions and regard the concordant decisions of the successive Imams of the general body of jurists as supplementing the Koranic rules and as equal in authority to them. The Shia, on the other hand, rejects not only the decisions of the jurists, but also all traditions not handed down by Ali or his immediate descendants-those who had seen the Prophet and held familiar intercourse with him.
Approaches of shiias during high khilaphat era
The Shiia rejects not only the decisions of the jurists, but also all traditions not handed down by Ali or his immediate descendants-those who had seen the Prophet and held familiar intercourse with him.
Approach of sufis during high khilaphat era
Sufism or tasawwuf, (Arabic word), is generally understood by scholars and Sufis to be the inside and mystical dimension of Islam. Today, however, many Muslims and non-Muslims consider that Sufism is outside the globe of Islam. Nevertheless, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, one of the pioneer scholars of Islam, in his article “The Interior Life in Islam” contends that Sufism is merely the name for the inner dimension of Islam. The spirit of Sufi practice is very simple. It is that method in which the Sufi surrenders to God in love which involves with love at each moment the content of one’s consciousness (one’s insight, thought, and feeling, as well as one’s sense of self) as gifts of God or, more precisely, as manifestations of God. As Sufism doesn’t concern a lot about the materialistic life, the concept of din wad daula is considered to be less important to the Suffis. As they are the followers of prophet they also obey the ruling of the Khalips and the concept that the Muslim scholars served.