The given comparative analysis will primarily focus on the Venus of Willendorf, an example of Paleolithic art, with the Cernavoda Figures, examples of Neolithic art. The emphasis will be put on elements of design, which are texture and shape/volume, and principles of design, which are scale/proportion and balance. In the case of the texture, the Venus of Willendorf has a rougher and more non-uniform surface than the sculpture, whereas the Cernavoda Figures have a smoother and well-polished one. In other words, there is an evident leap in technology and technique of creating sculptures, which is indicative of the overall improvement of methodological improvements. In addition, the texture of the Paleolithic figure has more micro-fissures and holes, which can be the result of using a material less suited for sculpting and the use of less elegant measures. However, the Neolithic figure’s texture gives it more solidity due to the actual texture generating a visual appearance of uniformity.
In shape and volume, the Venus of Willendorf has a curvilinear shape, where each protrusion is evidenced by its spherical details, whereas the Cernavoda Figures have mainly rectilinear shapes with a minor presence of curvilinear elements, which bring more complexity and realism to the sculptures. In addition, the former structure can be considered more voluminous compared to the latter, which makes the latter have a higher degree of authenticity to the realistic depiction of human anatomy. In regards to scale and proportion, the Cernavoda Figures are clearly more proportionately accurate to the human body, whereas the Venus of Willendorf depicts a female body in an exaggerated manner. However, it should be noted that the latter achieved a higher level of detail, whereas the former focuses on a general scale of both genders. The Neolithic Figures alongside the Paleolithic sculpture have similarities in regards to disproportionality of the neck, where one excessively elongates, and another dismisses it fully.
Moreover, the Cernavoda Figures have more balance than the Venus of Willendorf due to the fact that there is an evident uniformity and symmetry in the sculptures. Although the Paleolithic figure strives to achieve some form of symmetry, one can see asymmetrical imbalances due to either technique-based differences or the creator’s intentions. Such a difference makes the Cernavoda Figures appear more balanced, even though some figures depict one leg being elevated over another. Therefore, both Paleolithic and Neolithic figures have differences in regard to texture and balance. Still, they are similar in the case of shaping and proportion, where they both have curvilinear elements and disproportionate necks.