The body uses automatic control systems that recognize changes and activate mechanisms to reverse them to ensure homeostatic stability, which is called negative feedback. For instance, blood glucose participates in tissue energy production, and its normal range is within 4–8 mmol/L. Pathological states include hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, which are below and above the norm, respectively. As a negative feedback mechanism, blood glucose involves certain loops and components.
Glucose feedback loops rely on several hormones and relevant elements. According to Röder et al. (2016), glucose is controlled by insulin and glucagon, secreted by the pancreas, an endocrine organ. Additionally, glucose is metabolized to synthesize the high-energy adenosine triphosphate. The endocrine system operates by producing and releasing hormones from various glands and transporting them via the bloodstream. Blood glucose regulation is the energy source for the body’s metabolic process, as cells need certain conditions to function properly.
The automatic control system has three components: receptors that detect changes, coordination centers, which interpret them and effectors, which provide a response. Altogether, blood glucose directly impacts the metabolic process and is involved in maintaining the body’s stability.
The system’s functionality can be demonstrated by an example involving food. After a meal, blood sugar rises, and receptors sense a change. In turn, the pancreas detects the glucose level and releases insulin to lower it, and the liver stores glucose as glucagon. However, a person may skip a meal for some reason. Then, the pancreas releases glucagon, which will diffuse with body cells, mainly in the liver. It will break them down and decrease blood glucose concentration, resulting in a stable internal environment. Thus, blood glucose is an important negative feedback mechanism, regulating the body during the consumption process.