Lung cancer is an illness of unregulated cell growth of the lung. This cell growth within the lung tissues may result to metastasis. Lung cancer is accountable for approximately 1.5 million deaths globally every year and it is the most cancer that affects the highest number of men and women. The main signs and symptoms of cancer are weight loss, squatness of inhalation and coughing. The large number of the main lung cancers is referred to as carcinomas of the lung that is obtained from the epithelial cells (Minna 554-556).
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Summary of an article
Lung cancer is caused by abnormality in the unit of life of the body. The body sustains a structure of steadiness and confirms on the growth of the cell in order for the cell to divide to offer new and innovative cells when required. Interference of this system of balances and checks on the growth of the cells leads to an unregulated proliferation and division of cells, which ultimately makes a formation called tumor. These cancer cells can be classified as malignant tumor or benign tumor. Benign tumors can be extracted without spreading to any other body part. On the other hand, malignant tumors grow aggressively or sharply and attack other body tissues, permitting tumor cells to get their way into the lymphatic system or bloodstream and eventually into other parts of the body (Stoppler 1).
Since lung cancer attempts to metastasize or spread early in its form, it is a fatal or dangerous cancer and it is very hard to treat. In addition, it can metastasize to any part of the body especially bloodstream, kidney, liver, adrenal glands and central nervous system. However, the lung is the most frequent part of the body for cancer to spread from other sites of the body.
The main role of the lungs is for gaseous exchange between the blood and the oxygen breathed in by an individual. In addition, carbon dioxide from the body is also extracted through the lungs and oxygen inhaled, gets into the body. According to the anatomy, an individual’s right lung and left lung have different number of lobes. The former has three lobes while the later has two lobes. In addition, the left lung has minute formation referred to as lingual, which is similar to the middle lobe. The main airways that get into the lungs are called bronchi and they crop up from trachea. There is a division of bronchi into the increasingly slighter air-passages referred to as bronchioles, which terminate in minute pockets called alveoli in which the substitute of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases happens. The external or outer cover of the lung and chest is a thin layer referred to as pleura (Stoppler 2-3).
Lung cancers can occur in any section of the lung, though approximately 93 percent of the lung cancers are believed to come from lining cells or epithelial of the smaller and larger bronchioles and bronchi airways. Moreover, cancer can crop up from the pleura and thus known as mesotheliomas, or seldom from blood vessels of the lungs (Stoppler 4).
Lung cancer is accountable for several cancer deaths among the males and females all over the globe. It is mainly an illness of the older age individuals and approximately 70 percent of persons diagnosed to be suffering from this problem are aged 65 year and above. On the other hand, about three percent of the lung cancer cases happen to individuals who are 45 years and below.
The occurrence of lung cancer is mostly associated with cigarette smoking and almost 90 percent of the cases result from tobacco utilization. The danger of contracting lung cancer rises with the quantity of the smoked cigarettes in one’s daily life. Cigar and pipe smoking can also contribute to lung cancers but the danger is not comparable to the great risk of cigarette smoking. The smoke of tobacco has approximately 4,000 chemical components, and most have been confirmed to be carcinogenic or cancer causing. The two main carcinogens contained in the smoke of tobacco are called “polycyclic aromatic and nitrosamines hydrocarbons”. The danger of contracting lung cancer lowers annually following smoking prevention or cessation since there is growth of the normal cells that restore the destroyed lung cells (Stoppler 6-8).
As mentioned earlier, there are two categories of cancer: the small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC and NSCLC). The grouping is based on the manifestation of the tumor cells through the microscopy. These two categories of carcinomas develop and metastasize in several methods and might have various treatment choices, hence a difference between the two cancers is very crucial. SCLC consist of approximately 20 percent of the lung cancers and tends to be the most destructive and tremendous developing in all lung carcinomas. In addition, SCLC is mostly associated with cigarette smoking. SCLC spread readily to most parts of the body and are mostly recognized after metastasizing in extensive area. NSCLC are the commonly known lung cancers, responsible for almost 80 percent of the lung cancers. They can further be classified into three major classes, which are named depending on the affected cells. These are adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and large cell carcinomas (Vaporciyan, Nesbitt & Lee 1228-1235).
Analyzing the information
The above information concerning lung cancer is very important especially when studying human anatomy and physiology. The information addresses the risk factors of lung cancers, causes of lung cancer and mechanisms on how lung cancer spreads. This information is important since the individuals or students will be in a position to address the condition and hence offer the applicable and appropriate health services. In addition, it helps one to understand the risk of cigarette smoking and hence, can be able to educate those who are addicted to cigarette smoking. Moreover, when the information is studied in anatomy and physiology courses, where the students have previously discussed the human lung in detail they are able to understand comprehensively how the tumor cells metastasize. It is also significant to understand the different types of carcinomas since they attack different cells, this will assist the students to know the type of diagnosis and treatment to use in every carcinoma.
Support of the analysis
Cigarette smoking results to lung illness in many ways. It destroys the natural protection techniques of the lung by aggravating the airways and restraining the mucociliary escalator and macrophages work. Such impairment is a great cause of severe heart and lung illnesses and particular forms of cancer including lung cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking has an interactive influence with the carcinogens of the pulmonary like uranium, asbestos, arsenic and chromium components (CDC 8).
Cigarette smoking heightens the danger of lung cancer by approximately 15 percent, persistent asbestos contact by about four percent, though when combined they lead to a 60 percent risk in danger and not 19 percent rise. Therefore, individuals or smokers who experience lengthened occupational contacts to any other airborne pollutants contract lung and heart illness and lung carcinoma more easily or rapidly than individuals who do not smoke with similar contacts. In addition, these heart and lung illnesses continue more readily since there is additional burden on the lungs because of cigarette smoking (Humble, Samet, Pathak & Skipper 146-148).
When the cancer develops in the bronchioles or bronchi airways, it might hinder the flow of air leading to difficulties in breathing. This can result to buildup of discharges behind the hindrances, disposing an individual to other diseases like pneumonia. The surface of the lung carcinoma might be delicate, resulting to bleeding into the airways. As a result, this blood might end up being coughed out (Honnorat & Antonie 22).
Others interested in health field
This information discussed in this paper concerning lung cancer is significant to the nutritionist since they cater for the wellbeing of an individual. Therefore, with this adequate information, they are in a position to advice smokers on the type of food to eat in order to restore the destroyed cells. In addition, stakeholders who are interested in controlling lung cancer, which is a field of health, need this information in order to understand whether the morbidity and mortality rates are increasing or decreasing after their input. Such information can either boost their interest in participating in smoking cessation or make them develop new strategies that can be implemented in order to stop smoking.
CDC. Overview of Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology. Niosh Pyrometer Training Guide 1-1. 2004. Web.
Honnorat, Jerome and Antoine, Christophe. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 2 (2007):22. Web.
Humble, Caig, Samet, Jeary, Pathak, Dickson, and Skipper, Beiney. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in ‘Hispanic’ whites and other whites in New Mexico. Am J Public Health, 75 (1985): 145–148
Minna, Jeald, Schiller Jeroly. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (17th ed.). McGraw-Hill. 2005. pp. 551–562
Stoppler, Melissa. Lung Cancer. Lung cancer index.2009. Web.
Vaporciyan, Antony, Nesbitt, Jacklyne, and Lee, James Cancer Medicine. B C Decker. 2000, pp. 1227–1292.