Health promotion plans are built on ways to improve health through preventive measures, including hardening, muscle activity, and regular exercise. Medical staff uses them to create the conditions for developing a healthy body that will be able to cope with stressful situations and gradually strengthen the immune system. Among the many health promotion plans, the Health Promotion Model (HPM) by Nola J. Pender stands out, to be developed as a complementary tool in medicine. It has found the most excellent use in nursing practice because it is best suited for dynamic health promotion.
Overview of the Model
The HPM defines health as a positive dynamic state, not just the absence of disease. Health promotion focuses on improving the well-being of patients interacting in the environment in search of well-being. The Pender model focuses on three main categories: individual characteristics, cognition effects, and behavioral outcomes. It looks at background factors that trigger or stimuli for a patient’s health behavior. HPM also pays attention to the change process: there is room to follow the action plan and assess competing factors and requirements. A vital feature of this prevention model is that it emphasizes the preventive measures individuals should take to avoid illness (Khoshnood et al., 2020). HPM shows that every human being is a biopsychosocial being partly shaped by the environment and strives to create an environment in which innate and acquired human potential can be fully expressed (Aqtam & Darawwad, 2018). Thus, the promoted HPM conceptual frameworks are widely used in medical practice.
Application of HPM in Nursing
The Pender model was developed to support the nursing practice that lacked comprehensive, evidence-based prevention approaches. HPM can be applied to different populations, and it is important to respect both the collective desire for change and the individual desire for change. This model describes the critical role of nurses in helping patients prevent disease through self-care and intelligent decisions. During her long career, Nola Pender has supported and continues to support various nursing-related organizations with her time, service and expertise (Aqtam & Darawwad, 2018). Nurses use the HPM as a manual: it allows them to structure their support strategies and organize tactics for health-promoting behavior change. The goal of nurses who implement this model is to encourage patients to engage in health-promoting behaviors. In addition, nurses try to do those behaviors toward positive health outcomes, optimal well-being, personal satisfaction, and productive life (Khoshnood et al., 2020). The theory considers the importance of the social and cognitive processes and their importance in a person’s behavior and how all of these affect health promotion.
HPM is being actively implemented to achieve better outcomes in rehabilitation after serious illnesses. These may be cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and liver diseases, which require active prevention and restructuring of life patterns according to a new scheme to avoid recurrences. Studies confirm that there is statistical significance in the implementation of HPM-based interventions (Habibzadeh et al., 2021). In addition, there is a significant increase in average health and physical satisfaction scores. Researchers note that patients are also better able to relate to nurses and are more likely to share their concerns. HPM in nursing practice is an additional tool of interaction with patients that acts on all indicators at once, allowing for a significant increase in overall well-being.
In summary, Nola Pender’s health promotion model is based on the definition of health as a dynamic state, interventions that will significantly improve well-being indicators. It is applied to enable nurses to build rapport with the patient and jointly develop a health promotion strategy. In nursing, this model is indispensable because it addresses personal and background factors that allow for the organic development of immunity.
Aqtam, I., & Darawwad, M. (2018). Health promotion model: An integrative literature review. Open Journal of Nursing, 8, 485-503. Web.
Habibzadeh, H., Shariati, A., Mohammadi, F., & Babayi, S. (2021). The effect of educational intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model on quality of life and health promotion in patients with heart failure: an experimental study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 21, (2021). Web.
Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M. & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: a critical perspective. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 32(4). Web.