COVID-19 and Its Impact on the Immune System

COVID-19 has shaken the very basics of the healthcare system. The medicine was supposed to create epidemiological solutions for COVID-19 prevention and treatment quickly. In order to analyze the virus, the medical providers and epidemiologists had to work together to learn how the immune system responds to the virus and which symptoms and complications COVID-19 has. The current paper is devoted to investigating COVID 19 major symptoms, complications, its impact on the immune system, and the vaccines’ working principles.

The most widespread symptoms of COVID-19 are headache, fever, and nausea. The symptoms which require patients to be extremely cautious and call the doctor immediately are constant chest pain, trouble breathing, and losing consciousness (Chen et al., 2020). The most illustrative symptom reported in 65 percent of case studies on COVID-19 is the smell and taste dysfunction (Chen et al., 2020). Meningitis and encephalitis are also reported as being associated with COVID-19 in 35 percent of cases (Chen et al., 2020). The transcranial route is considered one of the possible ways SARS-CoV-2 can affect the brain (Chen et al., 2020). As a result, acute cerebrovascular complications were indicated in 23 percent of cases of hospitalized people (Fink et al., 2020). Thus, if people’s symptoms slightly resemble the ones mentioned above, they should immediately visit the doctor to avoid the virus development.

High-risk patients for COVID-19 are considered to be people over 70. The immune system of aged people functions poorly due to age deterioration (Levy & Vishnevetsky, 2020). As a result, it cannot respond to the virus correctly and eliminate the distribution of the contagious cells. For example, chronic heart illnesses, diabetes, and kidney and liver diseases can develop significantly and even cause a lethal outcome (Levy & Vishnevetsky, 2020). The most affected organs suffer the most because of the virus. Patients with chronic respiratory or pulmonary problems are also considered high-risk groups (Levy & Vishnevetsky, 2020). COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the most common complications (Levy & Vishnevetsky, 2020). COVID-19 damages the lungs and blocks the oxygen from transferring to the bloodstream.

Some patients have the normal immune system reaction to COVID-19: creating antibodies and white blood cells to eliminate the virus. However, in particular cases, a cytokine storm process increases inflammation, damaging vital organs (Ahmadpoor & Rostaing, 2020). This happens because the body cannot produce enough adaptive responses against the virus (Ahmadpoor & Rostaing, 2020). The body’s immune inability may be caused by different illnesses or age deterioration. Thus, stimulating the adaptive immune response can be helpful for high-risk patients’ treatment. The COVID-19 variants usually spread faster due to the mutated structure, causing more severe illnesses (Ahmadpoor & Rostaing, 2020). The COVID-19 variants are usually spread faster due to the mutated structure, thereby causing more severe illnesses. The immune system’s response to repeated infection displayed a low level of antibody binding and neutralization potency (Ahmadpoor & Rostaing, 2020). Thus, the COVID-19 variants are more dangerous than the original virus due to the mutation.

Most of the existing vaccines’ genetic code stimulates the human body to produce a vast amount of antibodies and other proteins to fight the virus. The mRNA vaccines include the spike protein, which is inherent to the SARS-CoV-2 genetic code (Cohen et al., 2020). After the vaccine, the body starts to duplicate this element to help the immune system stop the virus from spreading. The monoclonal antibodies are set into action through the B lymphocyte modifications aimed at the particular immunoglobulin production (Cohen et al., 2020). The monoclonal antibody selection depends on the specific molecule of the virus and is oriented on eliminating the essential for the virus growth spike (Cohen et al., 2020). Therefore, vaccines help the body store the white blood cells to form the supply to fight future infections.


Ahmadpoor, P., & Rostaing, L. (2020). Why the immune system fails to mount an adaptive immune response to a COVID-19 infection. Transplant International, 33(7), 824–825.

Chen, X., Fink, G., Kleineberg, N., Laurent, S., Onur, O., Schwetzer, F., & Warnke, C. (2021). A systematic review of neurological symptoms and complications of COVID-19. Journal of Neurology, 268, 392–402.

Cohen, M., Marovich, M., & Mascola, J. (2020). Monoclonal antibodies for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. COVID-19 Resource Center, 324(2), 132–132.

Levy, M., & Vishnevetsky, A. (2020). Rethinking high-risk groups in COVID-19. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 42, 102.

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